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Zak: Exploring Radicalisation

Zak: Exploring Radicalisation

‘Zak’ Exploring Radicalisation was created as a response to the Prevent strategy, which was launched in 2007 and seeks to stop people from becoming terrorists or supporting terrorism. It is the preventative strand of the government’s counter-terrorism strategy, CONTEST.  Kent Police collaborated with the University of Kent and Kent County Council to develop a tool which would provide teachers and educators with an innovative focus in the classroom and could be used to facilitate discussion for example in PSHE or Citizenship on the topics of extremism, radicalisation, and internet safety. These are all complex topics and in recognition of this, the simulation “Zak” has been developed.  There are several recent case examples of students who have undergone the process of radicalisation and the problem of radicalisation on University campuses is not new.  Consequently, one of the overarching aims of “Zak” is to heighten awareness of young people BEFORE they go to University so that they can explore the possible signs and symptoms of a young person being groomed for radicalisation in a safe and measured way.  Zak is set within this pre-university period and in a noncriminalisation space.  Not only does ‘Zak’ tackle radicalisation online, but it also addresses key issues of e-safety.

Other useful sources of information

Need to redress injustice and express grievance:

Hacker, F. (1976). Crusader Criminals and Crazies: Terror and Terrorism in Our Time. New York: W.W.Norton.

Ross, J.I. (1993). Structural Causes of Oppositional Political Terrorism: Towards a Casual Model. Journal of Peace Research, 30, 3, 317-329.

Schmid, A.P. & Jongman, A.J. (1988). Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Databases, Theories and Literature. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books.

Stern, J. (2003). Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. New York: Harper Collins.

Borum, R. (2004). Psychology of Terrorism. Tampa: University of South Florida.

Silke, A. (2008). Holy Warriors; Exploring the Psychological Processes of Jihadi Radicalisation. European Journal of Criminology, 5, 1, 99-123.

Bartlett, J, Birdwell, J, King, M (2010). The Edge of Violence. A radical approach to extremism. Access at: www.Bartlett et al (2010).co.uk.

Eidelson, R & Eidelson, J (2003). Dangerous Ideas. Five Beliefs That Propel Groups Toward Conflict. American Psychologist, Vol. 58 No. 3, pp. 182-192.

Stern, J. (2003). Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. New York: Harper Collins.

McClintock, C. (1998). Revolutionary Movements in Latin America. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Speckhart, A. (2005). Understanding Suicide Terrorism: Countering Human Bombs and Their Senders. In Topics in Terrorism: Toward a Transatlantic Consensus on the Nature of Threat, (Volume 1) (Eds.) J.S. Purcell & J.D. Weintraub. Atlantic Council.

Need for identity, meaning and belonging:

Borum, R. (2004). Psychology of Terrorism. Tampa: University of South Florida.

Crenshaw, M. (1986). The Psychology of Political Terrorism. In M.G. Hermann (Ed.) Political psychology: Contemporary problems and issues (pp. 379-413). London: Josey-Bass.

Della, Porta, D. (1992). Political socialisation in left-wing underground organisations: Biographies of Italian and German militants. In D. della Porta (Ed.), Social movements and violence: Participation in underground organisations (pp. 29-42). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Johnson, P.W & Feldman, T;B. (1992). Personality types and terrorism: Self-Psychology Perspectives. Forensic Reports. 5, 4, 292-303.

Luckabaugh, R. Furqa, E. Cangemi, J. & Kowalski, C. (1997). Terrorist behaviour and foreign policy: who is the enemy? Some psychological and political perspectives. Psychology, 34, 2, 1-15.

Silke, A. (2008). Holy Warriors; Exploring the Psychological Processes of Jihadi Radicalisation. European Journal of Criminology, 5, 1, 99-123.

Silber, M.D. & Bhatt, A. (2007). Radicalisation in the West: The Homegrown Threat. New York City Police Department: Intelligence Division.

Van de Valk, I. & Wagenaar, W. (2010). The Extreme Right: Entry and Exit. Racism and Extremism Monitor. Anne Frank House.

Wasmund, K. (1986). “The Political Socialisation of West German Terrorists.” In Political Violence and Terror (Ed.) Peter Merkl, 191-228. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Sageman, M. (2004). Understanding Terror Networks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Karmani, A (2009). Reducing the Influences that Radicalise Prisoners. London Probation, unpublished report.

Perrin, A. (2002). “Tiger Country.” TIME, September 16. www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/article/0,13673,501020923-351287,00.html.

Collins, E. (1997). Killing Rage. Granta: London.

Speckhart, A. (2007). De-legitimising Terrorism: Creative Engagement and Understanding of the Psycho-Social and Political Processes Involved in Ideological Support for Terrorism. Connections. Winter, 1.

Stern, J. (2003). Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. New York: Harper Collins.

Schwartz, S.J., Dunkel, C.S. & Waterman, A.S. (2009). Terrorism: An Identity Theory Perspective. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32, 537-559.

Marcia, J.E. (1966). Development and Validation of Ego Identity Status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 3, 551-558.

Bjorgo, T & Horgan, J. (2009). Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individuals and Collective Disengagement. Oxton: Routledge.

Jacobsen, M. (2010). Terrorist Drop-outs: Learning from those who have left. Policy Focus, 101. Washington Institute for Near East Policy.

 

Need for excitement, comradeship and adventure:

Silke, A. (2008). Holy Warriors; Exploring the Psychological Processes of Jihadi Radicalisation. European Journal of Criminology, 5, 1, 99-123.

Speckhart, A. (2005). Understanding Suicide Terrorism: Countering Human Bombs and Their Senders. In Topics in Terrorism: Toward a Transatlantic Consensus on the Nature of Threat, (Volume 1) (Eds.) J.S. Purcell & J.D. Weintraub. Atlantic Council.

Speckhart, A. (2007). De-legitimising Terrorism: Creative Engagement and Understanding of the Psycho-Social and Political Processes Involved in Ideological Support for Terrorism. Connections. Winter, 1.

Van de Valk, I. & Wagenaar, W. (2010). The Extreme Right: Entry and Exit. Racism and Extremism Monitor. Anne Frank House.

Bartlett, J, Birdwell, J, King, M (2010). The Edge of Violence. A radical approach to extremism. Access at: www.Bartlett et al (2010).co.uk.

Collins, E. (1997). Killing Rage. Granta: London.

De Cataldo Neuberger, L. & Velentini, T. (1996). Women and Terrorism. Hampshire: Macmillan.

Macdonald, E. (1991). Shoot the Women First. New York: Random House.

Jurgensmeyer, M. (2003). Terror in the Mind of God. 3rd Ed. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Karmani, A (2009). Reducing the Influences that Radicalise Prisoners. London Probation, unpublished report.

Post, J. (2000). “Murder in a Political Context: Profile of an Abu Nidal Terrorist” Bulletin of the Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Spring edition.

Bjorgo, T & Horgan, J. (2009). Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individuals and Collective Disengagement. Oxton: Routledge.

Political/Moral motivation

Hoffman, B. (2006). Inside Terrorism. NY: Columbia University Press.

Silke, A. (2008). Holy Warriors; Exploring the Psychological Processes of Jihadi Radicalisation. European Journal of Criminology, 5, 1, 99-123.

Speckhart, A. (2007). De-legitimising Terrorism: Creative Engagement and Understanding of the Psycho-Social and Political Processes Involved in Ideological Support for Terrorism. Connections. Winter, 1.

Stern, J. (2003). Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. New York: Harper Collins.

Karmani, A (2009). Reducing the Influences that Radicalise Prisoners. London Probation, unpublished report.

Post, J. (2000). “Murder in a Political Context: Profile of an Abu Nidal Terrorist” Bulletin of the Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Spring edition.

Horgan, J. (2009). Walking Away from Terrorism. Oxon: Routledge.

Bjorgo, T & Horgan, J. (2009). Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individuals and Collective Disengagement. Oxton: Routledge.

Transitional periods

Silke, A. (2008). Holy Warriors; Exploring the Psychological Processes of Jihadi Radicalisation. European Journal of Criminology, 5, 1, 99-123.

Razzaque, R. (2008). Human Being to a Human Bomb: Inside the Mind of a Terrorist. London: Icon Books.

 

Socio-economic factors:

Mina Al Mina 2009; Studies of Radicalisation: State of the Field Report Politics and International Relations Working Paper www.rhul.ac.uk/politics-and-IR No.11 January 2009

Ineke van der Valk and Willem Wagenaar 2010; Racism & Extremism Monitor The extreme right: entry and exit

Dr Matthew Goodwin and Professor Jocelyn Evans 2012; From voting to violence? Far-right extremism in Britain